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An Historic Survey to the Present Day 



In assembling material for the exhibition, the Museum has received 
most helpful suggestions and information from the following, to 
whom are given most grateful thanks: 

Kenneth Francis Bates 
Leopold Blumka 
Peggy De Salle 
Miss Helen S. Foote 
Leon Grinberg 
Miss Yvonne Hackenbroch 
Mathias Komor 
Mrs. Mary Lyon 
Augustus Peck 
Francis W. Robinson 
Walter Rozalski 
Laurence E. Schmeckebier 
Seymour Slive 

The apparatus used for the technical demonstrations has been provided 
through the courtesy of the Brooklyn Museum Art School. 

The flock paper used in the cases was specially made for this exhibition by 
Piazza Prints, Inc. 

Copyright 1954 by The Cooper Union Museum for the Arts of Decoration 



IE HAVE FORGOTTEN HOW MUCH BY CHANCE, by mishaps and runs of luck 
man was first induced to profit by tfie accidents that have filled his life with 
marvels. But the goddess Fortuna, discredited now and doubtless fretful at 
neglect, once manipulated the affairs of man with whimsical tyranny. In 
ages less insolent than ours, when daily we rifle doom as if it were a penny 
bank, her escapades were solemnly pondered; her gifts, good or hateful, were 
received with deference. With the exercise of reason man has rejected the 
troubling hints that his exploits may have had their beginnings in something 
other than intelligence. 

Can we say that the arch, the pulley, the lever and the wheel were "in- 
vented," that some haphazard event, delivering the example, did not precede 
their application? Two walls fell together and joined in a curve; a vine grew 
around a branch; a stick once trod upon moved a stone; the rolling circle of 
a log called up a premonition of machines. Man does absolve himself of 
vainglory to the extent that the fortuitous is gathered in, understood, and 
regulated; to the extent that — never forgetting humility — he modifies occa- 
sion by his will. 

The means by which the goddess brings about invention are so slight, so 
easily concealed, that her reward must often consist only of ironical pride, 
not uncolored by envy. For from her vagaries, transfigured and controlled, 
have come bronze and porcelain, glass of Venice and Amati's vibrant strings, 
the celestial hemispheres of Byzantium and the surging vaults of Chartres. 
An artisan, acting upon her vagaries, submits them to menial ends and 
remains her servant. But the artists seizes a mute device, and, by converting it 
into a speaking instrument, becomes the deity's master. 

The artist's language need not be of words. It may transmit through 
melody or symbols, representation or form. Yet the requisite, if thought is 
to be discovered to another, is that the imagery must be a compact between 
equals; it cannot be wholly individual, hermetically contained, or separate 
from human sympathies. And art, in order to surpass accidental origins and 
expedient aims, must convey not only thought through order but feeling 
through elation. If art does not, if the artist wards off this excruciating duty 
and retreats, Fortuna laughs knowingly and applauds. For then art is again 
in her power, to endure or not so long as she determines, to end in fragments, 
discord and debris, without the immortality of soul that is the issue of travail 

When the argil is twirled between the palms and wound into pottery, 
something unites and remains with the clay, vivifying it and, for the potter 

at least, responding, thereafter, as an ally. How much more identification 
there is, then, between an artist and his creation, compounded as it is with 
thought and instinct, technique and passion. It may even come about that 
the artist thinks of himself only as an intermediary between amorphous spirit 
and forged idea, as the hammer and anvil whose force and resistance give 
shape and substance to inspiration. Whether he is a materialist or a mystic, 
he who makes a thing with his hands, and whose hands are quickened by 
more than the life of muscle and bone, covets what he has made and would 
have it outlive him to celebrate his accomplished ambition. Man can survive 
himself in what he makes, if the yield delivers some tidings of the mind, some 
memory of feeling, which can be perceived by another, no matter how long 
after he may come. So the search for expression is merged with the search for 
some constant medium which will react to his pleasure and subsist as testa- 
ment and triumph. 

Of the media used to record pictorial ideas, none is more enduring than 
enamel. Tempera and fresco succumb to the infirmities of the panel and the 
wall, oil pigments crack and flake, even bronze corrodes. But the pulverized 
mixture of silica, borates, alkalis and metallic oxides which, heated on their 
base of gold, copper or silver, fuse into the hard, bright stuff we call enamel, 
will remain uncorrupted by moisture or most chemicals, and even by heat 
that would destroy completely a painting or a print. How and where it was 
discovered we do not know. Wherever there was glass, enamel was latent; 
where vitreous glazes were used on ceramics, the step ixom ceramic to metal 
base was only inappreciable. The Egyptians of the 18th Dynasty inlaid their 
faience with powdered glazes of different colors and refired the pottery so 
that the filling fused with the whole. Lapidaries of the Ptolemaic period 
fixed glass in fillets of gold and fused them into place, apparently with some 
sort of paste adhesive between the imitation gem and the base. Fragments 
of mosaic glass from Abydos and Tell el-Amarna, of the 18th or 19th Dynasty 
(Nos. 1, 2), and from Dendereh, of the Roman period (30 B.C.-364 A.D.) 
(Nos. 3-5) might be called "proto-enamels," for they show how vitreous ma- 
terial of different colors, though still employed as solid inlays, was melted 
together to be used in jewelry and decorated utensils. 

One would think that the Egyptians and the Graeco-Romans, with their 
multifarious techniques and skills, would have hit upon the art of enameling 
on metal as a logical and deduced result of their treatment of glass. Yet their 
proficiency did not, apparently, lead them from one practise to another, as 
would be plausible were man's cunning as rational as he would like to 
believe. It is probable that enamel originated somewhere else than in the 
Mediterranean basin. The sophist Philostratus of Lemnos, writing about 
240 A.D., informs us that "It is said that the barbarians of the outer sea pour 

these colors into bronze moulds, that the colors become as hard as stone, 
preserving the designs." If such a craft had been common in Rome or Athens, 
it seems strange that it would have been worthy of remark. And would it 
not be more natural to suppose, since the first true enamels have been fotmd 
on the outskirts, rather than at the center of the Roman world, in Britain, 
near Namur in Belgium, in the northern Caucasus and at Dura-Europos in 
Syria, that among the gifted outlanders enamel was revealed by chance? 
Perhaps some Celtic or Gaulish chieftain dropped a glass-encrusted brooch 
into the fire and took it to his smith to be repaired; the smith noticed that 
the glass had become attached to the metal, and began to experiment. Or 
some vitrarius, a provincial glass-maker, seeing how the pot-metal had ad- 
hered to the ladle, replaced cut stones with raw frit. 

The technique, once having been found, must have spread with gieat 
rapidity among the peoples who dwelt on the edges of the empire; that 
enamels of relatively the same date (the 2nd and 3rd centuries A.D.) have 
been uncovered in areas as widely dispersed as the Valleys of the Meuse and 
the Euphrates may be an argument either for an unconnected, spontaneous 
origin, or for a peripheral commerce in this happy substitute for precious 
stones. But whatever the how and where and when, Roman Gaul, especially 
Belgica, was apparently one of the first and largest scenes of manufacture. 
There may have been economic reasons: northern Europe is poor in precious 
stones. Aside from amber, garnets, amethystine and rose quartz, agates and 
jet, there was little to be found in mines and creek-beds that would enrich 
the gold and bronze. The fibulae (Nos. 10, 11, 13) in which native stones or 
paste are set are rather somber; but let the cloisons be filled with enamel 
(Nos. 6-9, 12, 14, 15) and the colors flash into light green, yellow, red and blue. 

The border peoples had their own aesthetic, very different in source and 
energy from that of classical antiquity. The forms of their jewelry, horse- 
trappings and utensils are at once massive and restless; lines and interlaces, 
animal and geometric figures coil and weave impatiently and asymmetrically 
across the decorative fields. Where glass or precious stones occur, they are 
used as bulky accents, with a crude yet stately grandeur. The enamel, then, 
this novel substitute, is first applied to emphasize the metallic form; it lends 
a prismatic inflection to the malleable base. But always with new media 
there comes a point in the wielding when what was secondary and tentative 
appropriates to itself a temperament, an independence of character, that 
works in turn upon the craftsman. He discerns, falteringly, but with increas- 
ing confidence, that the material makes its own demands; that, having been 
developed, it develops further as a sovereign being. It is at this point that 
the properties of the medium are given their privileges and are admitted to 

The paramount qualities of enamel, as distinct from other decorative pig- 
ments or materials, are its chromatic variety and its tactile and visual elegance. 
It is not a veneer or a gloss, for its depth and consolidation with the metal 
give it a lucid gravity that penetrates the form of which it is a part. Being 
vitreous, whether translucent or opaque, it absorbs and reflects light, so that 
underneath the superficial polish wells a profundity of radiation. Even when 
painted on the base, when its divisions are not conditioned by metal bands, 
enamel possesses a neatness, a limpidity of outline and body, that render it 
both strict and sumptuous. It is not a means for recording the impression or 
the reverie; once fused, the pigments are immutable; they must be placed and 
designed with a delibeiation that, for an art, is close to science. Champleve 
and cloisonne especially, though with cultivation both may become finical, 
still must comply with the habit ordained by the metal. And it is this pre- 
meditated unity of the two components, the fluxible color and the resistent 
ground, tempered in the kiln's heat to a serene and balanced fixity, which 
makes the enameler's art the eager accomplice of devotion. 

Our western eyes suffer from a kind of historic astigmatism which even 
the lens of objectivity cannot wholly correct. We are still taught that Hellenic 
civilization was somehow demoralized and dispersed, to be restored and col- 
lected again by the humanists of the Renaissance. We look upon the glim- 
mering residue of the Eastern Empire as something exotic, faintly vicious, 
paralyzed by ritual and unhealthy contemplation. Yet the civilization of 
Byzantium was a transposed Athens of the Periclean age, in which the same 
order, the same reduction to type and module took place on an inward plane. 
Its forms stood, not on sunlit promontories or in spring-fed groves, but within 
piles of masonry that enveloped spaces crowned with gold and azure, where 
the rhythms of mosaics, the measures of the liturgy turned the Greek intellect 
away from body and mind to the imponderables of the Holy Wisdom. The 
art evolved on the Bosphorus, in Georgia, Armenia, the Peloponnesus and 
Illyrium was perhaps the most calculated effort to make real on earth the 
mystic ecstacy of Christendom. All the disciplines and desires that drive the 
spirit, that can be echoed and enforced by color, distortion, cadence and 
power are distilled from the structure, and the hues and textures of Byzantine 
decoration. Thus the episodes of the Gospels (Nos. 17, 18, 19, Fig. 2, 21), 
the figures of saints (No. 23) and the Mother of God (Nos. 22, 26), contrived 
of cloisonne enamel to cover tabernacles and screens, are the pictorial agents 
of divine grace. The examples shown are perhaps a little less austere than 
those of first half of the Empire's span. They follow by several centuries the 
final resolution of the iconoclastic controversies in 843, the ferocious strug- 
gles between those who would ban images from the churches, and those who 
would maintain them. Saint Theodore of Studium (died 826), with a logic 

wholly classic, ended the dispute by arguing that the image-breakers were 
heretics, since they denied an essential part of Christ's human nature, namely, 
that it could be represented graphically. The graphic representation of 
Christ in Majesty (No. 24) is less natural than supernatural: the enamel, the 
gold cloisons depict a figure whose robes and visage seem to diffuse the same 
intensity, now cooled and burnished, that united them in the fire — that 
synthesized, in religious ardor, the dictates of matter and salvation. 

The Eastern Empire under the Comneni (1081-1204), the period of these 
pieces, saw the arrival of the Crusaders and the eventual capture of the capital. 
How the brawling fortune-hunters must have gaped at the wealth and sophis- 
tication of the Sacred Palace, where twenty thousand functionaries, all in 
their graded livery of dark blue, flame-red and gold, converged on the core 
of imperial purple! How they must have fidgeted at the unendingly supple 
gestures, the rites and formulae! With the contempt of the uncouth for the 
civilized, they roistered and passed on, jealous and greedy enough to return 
at last to sack the city in 1204. Yet the Crusaders were not entirely unim- 
pressible. Those who made their way back to France and Germany retained 
recollections of techniques; they brought sacred loot as well, which with 
pious duplicity they donated for their souls' sakes to churches and mon- 
asteries. Byzantine enamels had now and then preceded them to the Caro- 
lingian and Ottonian courts of the Rhineland, where the cloisonne was 
crudely imitated. Emissaries such as Abbot Willibald of Stavelot in Belgium 
carried triptychs and reliquaries away as gifts. But the great refluence of the 
Crusades was responsible, more than anything else, for the appearance of 
enamel among the descendants of the Gauls and Franks. 

Fostered by the enthusiasm for representation that followed the quarrels 
of iconoclasm, enameling had become one of the noblest arts of the Eastern 
Empire. Again fostered in the West by the religious intoxication of the 12th 
and 13th centuries, this same art enriched the shrines, bookcovers, candelabra 
and other ecclesiastical appointments with hues and textures they had never 
known before. But the enamel of the medieval West is a very different thing 
from that of Byzantium; the difference springs, not from any critical change 
in the substance, but from a dissimilarity of resources and attitudes. Byzan- 
tine enamel is almost entirely cloisonne, and wrought upon ductile precious 
metals, primarily gold. Though the mines of Saxony and Spain produced 
gold and silver in some quantity during the Middle Ages, these metals were 
never common enough to be used extensively by craftsmen. Copper and 
bronze there were: these will withstand the kiln's heat, but they cannot be 
plied with the same refinement or elaboration. There arose, then, the second 
special technique, that of champleve, in which the pockets containing enamel 
have been cut or etched into the metal base. The earliest medieval champ- 

leve enamels, influenced by Byzantine cloisonne, disclose narrow metal 
ridges between relatively large areas of enamel, as if the craftsman were more 
intent, at first, on producing a counterfeit of the style than on perfecting his 
own. Before long, however, the metal areas become bolder; the courage of 
acknowledged limitations demands that the less tractable copper shall be 
worked in its own way. This brings about, in turn, a perceptible alteration 
in the quality of the enamel. Not being over gold, which will not tarnish 
and reflects light, but over an easily oxidized metal, translucent enamel 
would have been dim and stagnant. Instead, the paste is opaque and slightly 
granular, as if to abet, with its solidity, the toughness of the base. Perhaps, 
too, proficient though they were, the western craftsmen did not enjoy the 
equipment, the furnaces and mortars needed to produce translucent enamel. 
Yet their intuitive sense of fitness must have told them that the colors and 
textures set into copper gilt should reciprocate with, and not antagonize 
the foundation. 

An aesthetic, whether it be self-conscious or innate, must come not only 
out of material means but spiritual ends, and the spiritual ends of the West- 
ern Church had serious incompatibilities with those of Byzantium. Theo- 
logical niceties aside, the distinction is that between the ethereal plenitude 
of the Holy Wisdom and the temporal verity of the Kingdom of God. The 
Western Church inherited the Latin administrative tradition, not the phi- 
losophy of Hellas. To worshippers it offered a spectacle and a redemption 
no less wondrous, but of an order less subjective and sophisticated; its forms 
are nature's in her role as witness to God's omnipresent love. These forms 
are meant to be looked at as divine evidence, not felt through as divine 

Along the Meuse, in the medieval principality of the bishops of Liege, two 
figures appeared in the 12th century who, seemingly without precursors, 
established the arts of metalworking and enameling on a level hitherto un- 
known. Both Renier and Godefroi, also called Godefroi de Claire, came 
from the town of Huy. The latter, before returning to the cloister of 
Neufmoustier in 1173, worked for the mighty Willibald of Stavelot, and was 
commissioned to make the shrine of St. Heribert for the Church of Deutz, 
on the Rhine-bank opposite Cologne. The enamels of Godefroi and his 
school (Nos. 27-31, Fig. 3) are characterized by brilliant yellows, blues and 
greens, with vigorous highlights of white. The colors are not separated by 
ribs, but have been juxtaposed with a quill before firing. Godefroi and his 
pupils doubtless proceeded according to the method laid down by the monk 
Theophilus, who may have been the Benedictine Roger, writing in the 
monastery of Helmershausen at the turn of the llth and I2th centuries. 
His "De diversis artibus: sen diversarum artium schedula," or treatise "Upon 

Sundry Arts: a Practical Compendium," in the fifty-fourth chapter of the 
third book, contains a detailed account of the means by which electrum, or 
enamel, is placed in cloisonne: "... take all kinds of glass which you had 
prepared for this work, and breaking a particle from each piece, place all 
the fragments together upon a piece of copper . . . and placing it in the fire 
. . . you will see whether they melt equally. Taking separate pieces of the 
proved glass, place them in the fire one by one, and when each one has 
become glowing, throw it into a copper vessel in which there is water, and 
it instantly flies into small fragments, which you break with a round pestle 
until made quite fine . . . taking a goose quill cut to a point, as if for writing 
but with a longer beak and not split, you take out with it one of the colors 
of glass, whichever you please." He also says that, "in antiquis aedificiis 
Paganorum" may be found mosaics and vases which are the best source of 
powder for enamel. Speaking, too, of the spiritual ends of his text, he exhorts 
the artist: "Animated, dearest son, by these covenants with the virtues, thou 
hast confidently approached the house of God, hast decorated with the utmost 
beauty ceilings or walls with various work, and, showing forth with different 
colors a likeness of the paradise of God, glowing with various flowers, and 
verdant with herbs and leaves, and cherishing the lives of the saints with 
crowns of various merit, thou hast, after a fashion, shown to beholders every- 
thing in creation praising God, its Creator, and hast caused them to proclaim 
him admirable in all his works." 

The apostles (No. 31), the Old Testament priests (No. 30), and the theo- 
logical virtues (Nos. 27, 29) of this Mosan work have about them a classical 
composure which seems to have been bequeathed by the origin of the enamel, 
which, though pagan, could still be turned without error to Christian use, 
for as Theophilus says, "Through the spirit of wisdom you know that all 
created things proceed from God, and that without him nothing exists." 

The contacts of the Meuse and the Rhine with Byzantium, through per- 
sonalities such as Bishop Notger of Liege, the Empress Theophano, Willibald 
of Stavelot and even Theophilus, who had once stood in the atrium of Hagia 
Sophia, were the source of the art of enameling in that territory, and the 
classic leaven of its style. Teutonic nationalism has made the Rhenish-Mosan 
region the cradle of enameling throughout Europe, just as Gallic nationalism 
has given the honor to the second center, the city of Limoges. Probably 
neither is justified. Limovices was, from the 4th century, the capital of a 
powerful and accomplished Gallic tribe. It housed the mints of the Mero- 
vingian kings, and, being on the road to St. James of Compostela, was open 
to all the itinerant influences of the pilgrimages, as well as to the trade in 
copper from Spain and the north. The Limousins had been metal-workers 
for centuries: the Gallic decorative tradition emerged again, once stimulated 

by sensuous and religious need. In the ruins of the temples, theatres, baths 
and palaces were middens of glass fragments, easily crushed and smelted. 
And the enamelers were business-men. Between 1132, with the laying out 
of St. Denis by the Abbot Suger, and the end of the 13th century, Sens, Senlis, 
Noyon, Notre Dame de Paris, Laon, Soissons, Le Mans, Bourges, Chartres, 
Rheims, Amiens, Noyon, Coutances, Rouen, Strasbourg and Beauvais were 
building — an architectural proliferation unmatched in the western world. 
The cathedrals, and the monasteries and parish churches dependent on them 
needed ritual vessels (No. 47, Fig. 1), crosses (No. 45), caskets (Nos. 41-44), 
chalices, candelabra (No. 50), bowls (Nos. 48, 49), and other things. Out of 
the unprecedented demand came an unprecedented supply. 

The stylistic evolution of medieval Limoges enamels is not easily con- 
densed. In the 12th century the copper base, hatched and heavily gilded, 
supports medallions, figures and conventionalized designs in enamel — an 
echo of Byzantine format. The enameling is severely restricted to the pic- 
torialized form, without adjacent or alleviating ornament. Between 1180 
and 1220 the base is elaborated with a schematic foliate design between the 
figures; these pieces are termed a fond vermicule (Nos. 41, 44). Toward the 
end of the 12th century, another type appears, in which the gilded base is 
heavily cross-hatched into a fine network of lozenges; somewhat later the base 
is stamped with geometric patterns. About 1200 a transposition takes place: 
the base is enameled instead, and the figures are reserved or set in relief 
against it (No. 42). There may have been emotional and theological reasons 
for this change. The same occurs in architecture, as the sculptured decora- 
tion, applied as a subordinate part of the mass, cuts itself free and uses the 
architectural form as an abstract setting for its drama, as the logic of scholas- 
ticism was the sturdy trellis upon which climbed the luxuriant herbage of 
medieval life. 

With the gold rubbed from the ground, and colors often damaged by 
abuse, we may disdain all but the least marred of the Limoges enamels. Yet 
the pigments used were a cause of great risk and rivalry. Blue was obtained 
from oxide of cobalt, often found in conjunction with cuprous deposits; 
with traces of nickel, chrome and manganese it varies to grayish, greenish or 
violet. Opaque white came from lead and Cornish tin calcined together; 
red the enamelers obtained from lead and cuprous oxide, or from the alche- 
mists' "Purple of Cassius," the precipitate formed when gold, dissolved in 
aqua regia, is treated with stannous chloride. We know very little of the 
traders who carried these minerals over the Pyrenees, or from the Black Sea 
up the Danube and across into the west, of the expeditions that took years 
for the journey, that glass might be ground with the oxides between marble 
millstones, or in agate mortars, to become the splendid rosette-filled back- 


grounds of caskets and crucifixes. The making of medieval Limoges enamels 
was a commercial undertaking; the ateliers went about their task with an 
impersonal organization which has left us devoid of particular names, and 
insecure as regards the causes of the shifts of mood which led to innovations. 
The art of these productions is therefore absorbed collectively from the great 
reservoir of medieval life. Individuals as we conceive of them, human beings 
whose portion should be to round out, of their own free will, their most 
peculiar and exclusive talents, were absent from society. Instead, the human 
being, whether serf or sculptor, scribe or priest, shared in a corporate organ- 
ism that had, as its principle, the coalescence of nature and theology, to the 
end that each might minister to the other as confirmation of the glory of 
God. So too, the tendrils of metal and the enamel between them, the lozenges 
and circles that environ the figures as a star-laden sky environs the world, 
are illustrations of the medieval harmony. 

The exact time at which an epoch, having reached integration, begins to 
lapse, at which seeds formerly quiescent begin to swell and grow, cannot be 
fixed categorically, for in the vital process — and no less in the supervital 
process of art — advance and decadence are contingent on each other. By 
the end of the 13th century the equilibrium of the Middle Ages is fragile if 
not yet disturbed; a preoccupation with refinement supersedes. Richness, 
and the sensuous excitement of flashing substances, imbue the arts. Enamel 
is recast again, this time in a way which will mirror the expanding sensations 
of the artist. Vasari tells us, in his "Introduzione alle tre arti del disegno," 
that Giovanni Pisano was commissioned, in 1286, to provide the cathedral 
in Arezzo with an altar covered with mosaics and enamels on plates of silver. 
This is the first dated reference we have to basse-taille, the third technique, 
in which translucent enamel is fused over silver or gold carved or chased in 
relief. Italy may have been its birthplace, or it may have arisen elsewhere 
simultaneously, out of conditions natural to the workshops. Pieces appear in 
different parts of Europe almost immediately: the reliquary from Lichtenthal 
in Baden, now in the Pierpont Morgan Library, is probably not more than 
a decade younger than Giovanni Pisano's now destroyed work. Basse-taille 
gives to enamel an unwonted plasticity and opulence: figures and decorative 
patterns can be worked in the ground with the minuteness of an engraving; 
successive firings, which will gravitate the enamel into the deepest concavities, 
produce shadows and highlights, near-opacities and glazes, which scintillate 
and waver above and beneath (Nos. 62, 67, 78). As against the balanced 
stability of Limoges champleve, basse-taille is the enamel of motion, of flam- 
boyance and agitation. It serves for decoration, both secular and ecclesiastical, 
where beauty of appearance is an end in itself. 

At this juncture enamel (as with other media) becomes the vehicle of a 


fine art rather than a craft. The distinction is troublesome. To say that those 
who filled the treasuries of Byzantium and Cluny with masterpieces were 
somehow less alive to impressions, less ingenious and generative than those 
who followed would be to underestimate their talents. Yet, in the intercourse 
between maker and material which goes on in any workmanship, a turning 
point is ultimately reached. The substance becomes so responsive to the 
character pressed upon it, and the artificer becomes so appreciative of his 
intentions as they are registered, that the creation assumes an intimacy in- 
capable of duplication or collective execution, and the maker pays homage 
to himself and the deed. The onlooker, also, pays homage to this private 
deed as something absolute, and to the maker as one marked and set apart. 
So the concept prevails that each artist's relation to the world is matchless, 
that what the artist does is to be valued for its fidelity to his superior vision. 
Symbols and patterns decline; particulars, both in nature and the human, 
multiply the means by which the artist expresses his affections, and the inter- 
pretation of mankind by man wins through. 

Such was the persuasion of the Renaissance — a persuasion the west has 
never lost. We paraphrase the Renaissance as the rediscovery of classical 
antiquity, a misapprehension which ignores cause and effect. Classical anti- 
quity was never invisible, save to eyes blinded by the medieval order of 
things. When, through the intuitive search for solutions, the aspects of man 
became more urgent than the aspects of the Kingdom of God, Graeco-Roman 
modes revived. They were never more than an accompaniment to the main 
theme, which was humanism in the largest sense: the learning, the exhilara- 
tion, the amusement and suffering which can be man's when he beholds 
himself and his senses through the eyes of his own experience. Subject-matter 
appropriate to this commentary is introduced, and we deal with artists, 
names, personalities and individual devices, rather than with anonymous 
chattels of the faith. 

Before taking up the pictorial tradition as it resulted from the humanistic 
idea, it would be well to treat briefly certain other techniques and locales. 
The rare examples of Hispano-Moresque work (Nos. 55, 58) display the 
champleve and cloisonne techniques, with a configuration of abstract and 
denaturalized elements repeated over the surface. In medieval Spanish 
champleve enamel, probably practiced by artisans trained in, or in contact 
with Limoges, the figures (Nos. 56, 57) are less homogenous than their French 
counterparts, and there is a distinct partiality for the metal over the enamel. 
Attendant on the studied extension of technique at the beginning of the 
14th century, two more methods of enameling arrive. One is plique-a-jour 
("open braid"), in which the base has disappeared entirely, the translucent 
enamel being held solely by the filigree separating each segment from the 


other. Fabrication of plique-a-jour enamels, whether originating in Italy or 
France, was the consequence of scientific progress. Alchemists, though often 
frauds, were sometimes reasonable: their theory that metals might be trans- 
muted into gold if only the scoria, the dross, were refined away led to the 
discovery of acids, especially nitric acid, obtained by the late 13th century 
mystic Raimon Lull by burning nitre and clay. The gold filigree could be 
soldered to a copper base, filled with enamel, fused, and then placed in an 
acid bath which ate the base away; if the work was entirely of copper, those 
parts to be left intact were painted with asphalt. The extreme fragility of 
plique-a-jour pieces, which are in effect stained glass utensils, has limited our 
examples to modern work (Nos. 157, 163, 219, 220). Enameling on glass, 
using a very hard glass of high silica content as the base, and soft enamels 
(those with a high percentage of borax), probably first appeared in Tuscany, 
where the deposits of boracic acid in the marshes had been mined since 
ancient times. Actually, verre fixe or verre eglomise as it is called, can be 
included among enamels only by courtesy, and to the extent that the frit 
painted upon the back, often with the addition of gold, has been fused. The 
product is not unlike that of a very delicate basse-taille, radiant and full of 
detail (No. 60). The last of these elaborations, to be found almost solely in 
France in the second half of the 16th century, is enamel en resille (No. 103). 
The decoration, which is derived from the engravings of ornaments by 
Etienne Delaune (1519-1583), was cut into rock crystal or hard glass; the 
intaglio was then tamped with gold, into which additional cavities for the 
enamel were drilled. The whole was fused, and backed with metal foil 
tinted black or dark blue. 

Though adornment of the person with jewelry, as a token of caste, for 
magical defense against evils of all kinds, or as sheer magnificence, has been 
common to all races and periods, the Renaissance promoted the jeweler's art 
beyond any precedent. There were wealth to be paraded and personages to 
be puffed up. But the first determinant was that jewelry, expressly commis- 
sioned by the patron, not only allowed the artist the widest play of his deftness 
in combining techniques, but provided the customer with the opportunity 
for joining (if only vicariously) in the industry. To have empowered an 
artist to create was, to the humanistic mind, barely secondary to the act of 
creation. Renaissance jewels (Nos. 71-76) are surprisingly international in 
character: they are very seldom signed, and the motifs — mythological, alle- 
gorical or formally decorative — travelled with the goldsmiths from court to 
court, from Florence to Vienna, to Blois and the free imperial cities of the 
north. The pieces often combine exquisitely realistic subjects in opaque and 
translucent enamel with some abnormal article such as a blister or baroque 
pearl (No. 74), in which the subdued iridescence of the gem, forming a cloud, 


or the body of an animal or bird, supplements the lustre of the enamel. 
"Venetian" enamel (Nos. 65, Fig. 4, 66), so-called despite the absence of any 
genuine data that Venice was its place of manufacture, completes the minor 
Renaissance types. This variety is largely confined to domestic gear. The 
oriental shapes employed argue for Venice, which was the preeminent gate- 
way to the East, and in 16th century inventories it is designated "email 
turquie." The copper ground is entirely covered with enamel in blue, green 
and red, with large areas of white, the whole overlaid with stars, oak leaves 
and fronds of ferns in gold. The pieces must have come from one, or at 
most a few related workshops; appearing in the second half of the 15th 
century, it disappears after 1550. 

Now for the second time Limoges lays claim to primacy in the history of 
enamel. In the Middle Ages, "Limoges" is a synonym for champleve; in the 
Renaissance, it denotes a fresh and unconventional type, that of a pictorial 
statement fired on a copper base first covered on both sides with opaque 
white enamel, constituting a ground no different from the panel or canvas 
of a painter. Again the origin is unclear. The innovation has been ascribed 
to the influence of late- 15 th century glass painting, and to the desire to 
imitate on copper the lucent effect of Italian basse-taille. The initial attempts 
were made, apparently, by modest craftsmen about 1470 or 1480. If one may 
increase speculation with surmises, a partial answer may be found in those 
mysterious factors, taste and demand, actuated by long-range political events. 
The production of medieval Limoges enamels was a commercial undertaking; 
its products were largely at the disposal of the Church. Between 1483, when 
Louis XI, the "universal spider," died, and 1515, the accession of Francis I, 
two facts may be taken into account. One was the issuance of edicts by 
Louis XI restricting the rank of guild-master to certain privileged families. 
The other was the ascent, despite wars and ruinous taxes, of a bourgeois 
artisan class whose function was to embellish the broadened and secular 
artistic horizon of the nobility. Thus the humanistic pictorial temperament, 
already wholly matured in Italy and Flanders, passed into France at the 
service of an established profession which, without abandoning its materials, 
could emulate the compositions of more sophisticated lands beyond the 

The founder of the first prominent family of Limoges enamelers was 
Leonard, or Nardon Penicaud, active between 1503 and 1539 (No. 82). 
Nardon's brother or nephew, Jean I Penicaud, working between 1510 and 
about 1555, advanced the art with colors that are forceful and even violent: 
violet shadows underline the physical structure of the faces, the blues are 
full-toned, the greens dense, and lines of gold add their glow (No. 83, Fig. 8). 
Jean II Penicaud, thought to be the son of Nardon, was probably the same 


= o 

The Transfiguration; cloisonne enamel and gold 
Geort^ia, Byzantine Empire; 12th centin\ 
Lent bv The Detroit Institnte of Arts 


Fic. 3. REi-tQUARV; champleve enamel, semi-precious slones, and copper-gilt: 
Valley ol; the Meuse, Germany; about 1150 
Lent bv The Cleveland ^[useum of Art. J. H. \Vade Collection 

ajL}7fr7:i^?!!9J',if}/////////////i/f/n ^ ' 

Fig. 4. Ci'p and C^om.k; paiiued enamel on topper 
\enice, Iiah: late 15th - early 16th tciiturs 
Lent l)v The Art Institute of Chicai^o 

Flc. '). HsiA\(; 1,1 . Iiucnsf lliii hci ; ddisdunc and th.implcxc ciiMincl. copper and bron/e 
I'lobabh I'cipiii;^, China: Hsiiaii-I c; 142r)-1135 
I.eiU bv Ralph M. (hail 

Fic. 6. Alderman Stephen Iheodoie Janssen. as Lord Mavor ot London: Minialurc portrait 
on copper 

York House. Battersea. England: 1754 
Lent by Ir\vin Untermyer 

AVall Cross, scenes from the Lite oE Christ; painted enamel on copper 
Karl Drerup, (1904- ) ; Campton, New Hampshire, i;. .S. A.. 19.");! 
Lent by the Artist 

Jean Penicaud who was called to Bordeaux in 1564, in company with Leonard 
Limousin, to execute decorations for the triumphal entry of Charles IX and 
Catharine de' Medici. With him there begins a significant, and intrinsically 
contradictory application of white opaque enamel over a black ground, 
known by the same term used in painting, grisaille (No. 84). It is contra- 
dictory because, though the result may be stunning in a gloomy way, it 
negates the indwelling property of the medium, the stabilization of color. 
Though the works of the Penicaud atelier (Nos. 85, 86, 87) do not succumb 
to grisaille forthwith, the method becomes more and more important. Jean 
II Penicaud is noteworthy also as the artist who repudiated any lingering 
medieval motifs, either of subject-matter or demeanor: with him the Renais- 
sance in French enamels stands free. Another representative of the human- 
istic current is the nameless artist who, during the first third of the 16th 
century, produced a quantity of plaques (No. 97) of scenes from Virgil's 
Aeneid, derived from woodcuts printed by Johann Griininger of Strasbourg 
in 1502. These, with their amber-colored soil, bright green foliage and 
grisaille figures, are perhaps the most attractive examples of these era of 
transitional illustration. Of all Limoges enamelers the most renowned was 
Leonard Limousin, the innkeeper's son who, by 1548, was able to sign his 
works with the stately inscription "esmailleur, peinctre, valet de chambre du 
Roy." Born about 1505, his style evolved under the influence of German 
prints, especially those of Diirer, but he turned to Italian engravings after 
Raphael and then to the eclectic eroticism of the School of Fontainebleau. 
Francis I, ever alert and liberal where art was concerned, commissioned him 
in 1545 to make twelve plaques of the apostles, now in the church of St. Pierre 
at Chartres. As valet de chambre he was all but knighted, and had free access 
to the designs, as well as the celebrities, current at the court. His technique, 
a blend of incisive draughtsmanship, luscious color, and a sensuous rendition 
of flesh tones, is a sure transcript of the carnality and shrewdness which 
reigned with Francis I and Henry II. Two later members of the family, Jean 
Limousin, born about 1561 and still living in 1646, and Francois, who died 
about 1646, probably a nephew and grand-nephew respectively, continued 
among others to produce portraits and mythological scenes (Nos. 89, 90). 
Pierre Reymond is the last impressive figure of this extraordinary reha- 
bilitation of the art. Born about 1513, he was twice consul in Limoges (1560 
and 1567), dying shortly after 1584. As a contrast to Leonard Limousin the 
self-made aristocrat, Pierre Reymond is the flourishing wholesale decorator, 
with a host of busy underlings and a clientele as smart and well-to-do as 
the Tucher of Nuremberg. Grisaille relieved by light blues, greens and 
yellows adapts both decorative and pictorial motifs from Italian, French and 
German print-makers: Etienne Delaune, Thielmann Kerver, Virgil Solis, 


and Holbein (Nos. 91-94). The mercantile fecundity of Pierre Reymond 
contained its own decay, which was speeded by the preferment, after 1594, 
of Paris as a royal residence, and the migration of artists to the court. By 
the beginning of the 17th century the white ground used by Leonard 
Limousin in his portraits became the field of painting orij rather than in 
enamel, by miniaturists using pigments of pure metallic oxides suspended 
in flux and fused on the enamel base. The snuff boxes, chatelaines, portraits 
and small plaques of the 18th century (Nos. 109-113) are all in this medium, 
which any painter, given a little practice, can control. Microscopically fine 
and winning though they may be, their quality is no different from that of 
a miniature on porcelain or ivory; the inconsistency begun with grisaille 
is complete. 

Pierre Reymond's popularity in Germany is a clue to the style espoused 
there, as well as to the persistent influence of foreign styles. Indeed, the 
Renaissance in Germany is even more of a melange than elsewhere, but it 
is suffused by an oddly national characteristic, an inclination toward natural- 
ism combined with extravagance. Primarily a material subordinated, by the 
goldsmith, to the metal, enamel is used either to stress forms already three- 
dimensional (Nos. 121, 123) or as an incrustation (Nos. 114, 115, 118, 119) 
which is plastically handled in the manner of porcelain or wax. Painted 
enamels of both the types mentioned above do exist (Nos. 116-129); the 
choicest of painting on enamel is that produced in Saxony, mostly in Dresden, 
and in Augsburg and Berlin. The Fromery workshop, in Berlin, specialized 
in raised gold work on a white background (No. 126). 

Renaissance humanism, temporarily discountenanced by the hostilities of 
Reformation and Counter-Reformation, has since prospered with a success 
not altogether steady. The abundance of stimuli supplied by the world to 
man, when man is his own arbiter and norm, are so diverse — and even dis- 
cordant — that true singleness of style or intention is unattainable: freedom 
and unity are foes. And when man uses materials as mere conveniences of 
personal expression, overriding their traits for the sake of his own, the 
materials languish. Thus in the early 17th century, when enamel became 
a mere point of departure for graphic representation, its interior structure 
disintegrated. It became, for a time, a sort of utilitarian cosmetic: bright, 
superficially convincing, tenacious if not mistreated — but secretive of the 
character beneath. 

This is best seen in England. The "Surrey" enamels of the second half 
of the 17th century (Nos. 130, 131) are household articles of cast brass, the 
cavities filled with simple opaque colors which, though shallow, interplay 
with the metal. But with the establishment of the enamel works at York 
House, Battersea, by Stephen Theodore Janssen (No. 132, Fig. 6) about 1750, 


an enterprise ending in bankruptcy after six years, the commercial produc- 
tion of enameled copper boxes decorated with transfer-prints made from 
engravings reduced the medium at once to a substructional state. Concomi- 
tantly, in the Midlands towns of Bilston, Wednesbury and Birmingham, an 
almost over-plentiful production of snuff-boxes, tea-caddies, canisters, thim- 
ble-cases and other objects (Nos. 135, 136-138, 141, 143-145) sprang up, 
exhibiting lustrous ground colors, fantastic rococo cartouches of flowers and 
scrollwork, and fine gilding. The South Staffordshire productions are, in 
effect, the bourgeois Limoges of rational romanticism. Continental work 
(Nos. 146-150), more directly under the influence of France, and with a 
stubborn tradition of craftsmanship, continued the fabrication of bagatelles, 
miniatures and utensils. 

It would seem that the dominion of the Russian Orthodox Church would 
have been the citadel of the Byzantine in Europe; in painting this was true, 
but Russian enamels, perhaps because of an underlying strain from the 
Wandering Peoples, lean toward the West. Ivan IV (1535-1584), "The 
Terrible," subsidized wholesale migrations of western craftsmen. Techni- 
cally, Persia had its say, examples from the Near East (Nos. 167, 168) being 
a stock-in-trade with merchant families, especially the Stroganovs. Both 
champleve and cloisonne were used, with patterns of arabesques, diapers, 
sharply pointed leaves and pearled borders. Cloisons of twisted wire and 
a minute filigree, called skan, were typical. Such an association of styles could 
hardly be expected to result in coherence, yet the "Muscovite" enamels (Nos. 
154, 155) have a totality of effect that comes from exuberance of feeling and 
sensuous frankness. In the hands of masters backed by the immeasurable 
wealth of the Imperial court, this same sensuous candour, appealing through 
every stratagem of skill and rarity, surpasses itself in the work of Peter Carl 
Faberge (Nos. 164-166). In the history of enamel the Russian imperial pieces 
are curiosities. Commercially manufactured, they are never gross. Useless, 
save as costly distractions, the medium is never degraded by mannerism. 
The simplest seal is exquisite, and the most intricate toy is understandable. 
Baubles they may be, but with an esteem for the alliance of means and ends 
which eclipses their frivolity (Nos. 157, 158, 161-163). 

A continuity born of fatalism, and a conventionality that springs from 
philosophical contempt for material progress, are the marks of the Orient, 
though within the Orient styles differ as fundamentally as in the West. In 
India, the stronghold of the precious stones counterfeited, in Europe, by 
glass, enamel was used to contrive a flashing background for the more bril- 
liant gems (Nos. 169-173). In China, the inventiveness associated with 
bronze-casting and movable type did not extend to enamels. "Fa Ian," the 
word for enamel, is perhaps derived from "fo lin," the name for the Byzantine 


Empire. In the Ko ku yao Inn, a. book on antiquities published in 1387, it 
says that "in the present day a number of natives of the provinces of Yunnan 
have established factories in the capital (Peking) where the wine-cups are 
made which are commonly known as 'inlaid' work of the devil's country." 
This would be cloisonne or champleve enamel, becoming prevalent in the 
first decades of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). Perhaps the art was intro- 
duced over the silk routes, or by the random ambassadors and missionaries 
who blundered in. Once available, the technique was adeptly imitated: 
floral and symbolic patterns of great suavity and verve enrich the bronze 
(No. 174, Fig. 5, Nos. 175-178, 182, 184, 185). As in the golden age of 
medieval Limoges, the enamel is always bounded by, and enhances, the con- 
taining figure of the metal. The "chinoiserie" of Europe was paralleled, in 
China, by a kind of fashionable occidentalism. Jesuit missionaries, com- 
mencing with Matteo Ricci, who arrived in Peking in 1601, imported western 
art, and Father Attiret, a Frenchman, is said to have tried to paint in a 
manner combining Chinese and European styles. The painted enamels (Nos. 
179, 180, 181, 183, 188) made in Peking, Canton and Swatow, of the 18th 
century, are either pictorial in the western sense, or formally decorative: 
they have a smoothness and softness due to the composition of the applied 
colors being of precisely the same nature as the ground, so that both are 

Our first concern, the Occident, suffered, at the onset of the 19th century, 
a benevolent blight which, for all its remedial measures, it has not yet 
learned to control, much less cure. The machine, from the turbine to the 
potato-peeler, has spread a harvest of advantages, and wrought havoc among 
those who would form communicative images with their hands. The artist, 
on one side, loath to contaminate himself by contact with so impersonal an 
apparatus, became more and more aloof, and looked either backward to the 
masters or inward to his isolated fantasy. The craftsman, when not a me- 
chanic, became equally unsociable, with the additional obstacle that his 
designs were determined, not by an evolution, but by eclecticism. The result 
was an international anonymity without popular roots or aristocratic dis- 
crimination. Enamel, that firmest phoenix among the arts, seemed to have 
burnt itself out among the bijoux (Nos. 197-200, 204-210, 212-214.) 

Yet expression, and specifically expression that consists of the trial of 
media that are not facile, that do not effortlessly dispose themselves to flaccid 
impulses — this expression will at length break through. It may start again 
from faulty notions, such as the one that craft, per se, is estimable (Nos. 
215-218), and that what is said is irrelevant so long as the saying has been 
manual. But the force that lies within material, once loosed (no matter how) 
will summon up the energies to control it. Thus at the present time, when 


the precariousness of our station becomes insufferable, there is a need for 
fixing unalterably in form the reflections that have transmissible meaning. 
This is not to be done by chance, by the accident masquerading as decision, 
least of all in a medium that should be learned, prepared, watched and 
finished by one human being. So enamel has been reinstated among the 
decorative arts (Nos. 221, 222, 226-241, 242, Fig. 7, 243-250). The outcome 
of chance, yet the most deliberate of media, the fusion of enamel can melt 
together artist and beholder, structure and idea, in a bond as sustaining as 
the icons of Byzantium or the triptychs of Limoges. 

Everett P. Lesley, Jr. 


Basse-Taille {low-cut) . A combined technique. A low relief, usually in silver or gold, is 
flooded with translucent enamel. This enhances the plastic effect and adds color, the enamel 
being thickest where the cutting is deepest. 

Perfected and practiced primarily in Italy in the 14th century (Nos. 62, 67, 78) . 

Champlev£ (raised field) . The piece is engraved to receive the enamel (No. 41) . The areas 
cut are filled with enamel and fired until the enameled field is raised flush with the reserved 
metal. The whole is polished and the metal usually gilt and burnished. 

Perfected in the Valleys of the Meuse and the Rhine in the 12th century (Nos. 27, 29, 31, 35) , 
and in France at Limoges (Nos. 39, 42, 47, 48) . 

Cloisonne [separated, partitioned) . A technique which probably antedates the discovery 
of enamel and was used as a fastening for precious and semi-precious stones. 

Cloisons, or ribbon-like strips of metal, are fastened edgewise to a metal base. The areas 
outlined are filled with enamel, sometimes above the edge of the cloisons. After the last firing 
the piece is polished until the design of the cloisons is apparent and the surface is smooth. 

Perfected in the Byzantine Empire in the 12th century (Nos. 16-26) , though rare earlier and 
less sophisticated examples may be found in western Europe. Cloisonne was introduced into 
China probably in the 14th century, and into Japan afterwards (Nos. 174, 192) . Pieces are still 
made in the Orient, usually with technical proficiency but of varying artistic interest. 

Enamel. A vitreous substance similar to glass, colored by the addition of metallic oxides and 
fused on a metal surface. Enamels are opaque, translucent or a combination of these which is 
semi-translucent or opalescent. 

Encrusted. Almost exclusively a goldsmith's technique. Enamel is used relatively thickly to 
cover and model small figures of gold (Nos. 70, 72, 74) . Jewelry and small precious objects are 
enriched with this kind of enamel. 

Encrusted enamel is found from the 16th century in Europe (Nos. 71, 73, 75, 79) and India 
(Nos. 169, 171, 172, 173) . 

En Plein (in full, complete) . A finish rather than a technique. The entire surface of the 
piece, or the larger part, is covered with enamel, usually translucent, of high finish. The extreme 
smoothness of surface makes this method particularly appropriate for small objects that are 
to be handled. 

Perfected in Europe in the I8th century and made up to the present (Nos. 134, 142, 165, 195) . 

En R.£sille (in network) . A goldsmith's technique, similar to champlev^ but in smaller 


scale. The piece to be enameled, usually rock crystal or hard glass, is engraved with the design. 
The design is filled with gold and the cavities, to contain enamel of low fusing point, are 
drilled out. 

The technique, perfected in the 16th century, is rare (No. 103) . 

Painted. In this technique a sheet of metal, usually copper, is slightly domed. Both sides 
receive coats of enamel; that on the concave, or reverse, is called the counter enamel. The convex 
side is painted in colored or grisaille enamels. Grisaille requires a complicated method of 
painting several layers of white opaque enamel on a black ground. The degree of grayness is 
achieved by the amount black ground permitted to show through the white. Each application 
of enamel must be fired at a lower temperature than the preceding one or the earlier painting 
is destroyed. Grisaille and colored enamel are often found on the same piece. 

Perfected in France in the 16th century and used for portraits, plaques (Nos. 85, 91, 92) , and 
religious (No. 83) and domestic articles de grande luxe (Nos. 87, 90, 93, 94, 95) . 

Miniature paintings and portraits of the 17th and subsequent centuries are not enamel 
painting. While the painting is done on enamel, it is not done in enamel but in fusible 
pigments, usually raw metallic o.xides with a little flux, and fused to the prepared enameled 
plaque (Nos. 112, 128, 136, 139). 

Transfer printing is a variant of the miniature technique. A printed design is transferred 
to the prepared enamel surface, colored and fired (Nos. 113, 132, 135). 

PuQUE-A-JouR {open braid) . Two general types of this technique are kno^vn; translucent 
enamel is used in both. One is a variant of cloisonne. Here the cloisons are fastened to them- 
selves only and not to the ground, which may be mica or a non-fusible expendable material. 
After firing, the ground is removed, leaving only the enamel and the cloisons. The effect may 
be compared with that of a stained glass window. Occasionally wire is used in place of cloisons 
(No. 163) . In the second type proportionately less enamel is used; it fills holes worked in a solid 
metal piece. 

Mention of plique-i-jour work is found in France from the 14th century but few early 
examples exist. It was most popular in Russia and from the 17th century (Nos. 157, 161, 
162, 219) . William Osmun 


(The numbers set in parentheses after the descriptions of the objects refer to the owners 
of the objects, as shown in the list of Contributors to the Exhibition on page 28.) 


1. Nine fragments of pressed thread glass; 6. Five ornaments; champleve enamel and 
Tell el-Araarna, Egypt; 18th Dynasty (34) bronze; Gaul; 2nd-3rd century (10) , J. H. 

2. Mosaic glass, fragment; Abydos, Egypt; Wade Collection 

18th or 19th Dynasty (34) 7 Round fibula; champleve enamel and 

3. Striped mosaic glass; Dendereh Egypt; bronze; Gaul; 3rd-4th century (38) 
Roman period, 30 B.C.-364 A.D. (34) „ ,,,, , n, , u , • -u u 

4. Mosaic glass with lotus bud; Dendereh, ^- ^heel fibula; champ eve with bronze; 
Egypt; Roman period, 30 B.C.-364 A.D. "^^^^'^ 3rd-4th century (38) 

(34) 9. Round fibula; champleve enamel and 

5. Two pieces of mosaic glass with rosettes; bronze; Gaul; 4th-5th century (29) 
Dendereh, Egypt; Roman period, 30 B.C.- 10. Buckle and tongue; cloisonnd paste and 
364 A.D. (34) bronze; North Gaul; 6th century (24) 


11. Pair round fibulae; cloisonne glass and 
silver-gilt; North Gaul; 6th century (24) 

12. Round fibula; cloisonne enamel and 
bronze; partly gilt; North Gaul; 6th cen- 
tury (24) 

13. Round fibula; cloisonne paste and silver; 
North Gaul; second half 6th century (24) 

14. Annular pin; inlaid enamel and bronze; 
Ireland; 8th-9th century (24) 

15. Buckle; champlev^ enamel and gold; Lom- 
bardy, Italy; 6th-10th century (38) 


16. Three fragments; cloisonne enamel and 
gold (24) 

17. "Entry into Jerusalem," plaque; cloisonne 
enamel and gold; Georgia (5) 

18. "The Baptism of Christ," plaque; cloisonne 
enamel and gold; Georgia (13) 

19. "The Transfiguration," plaque; cloisonne 
enamel and gold; Georgia (13) 

20. "The Mother of God," plaque; cloisonne 
enamel and gold; Georgia (31) 

21. "The Crucifixion," plaque; cloisonne en- 
amel and gold; Georgia (31) 

22. "The Mother of God," plaque; cloisonne 
enamel and gold; Georgia (31) 

23. "St. James," plaque; cloisonne enamel and 
gold; Georgia (31) 

24. "Christ in Majesty," plaque; cloisonne en- 
amel and gold; Georgia (31) 

25. Double Cross with the Four Evangelists; 
cloisonne enamel and gold; Georgia (31) 

26. "The Mother of God," plaque; cloisonne 
enamel and gold; Georgia (42) 

I2TH-I4TH century: GERMANY 

27. Reliquary; champlev^ enamel, semi-pre- 
cious stones and copper-gilt; Valley of the 
Meuse; about 1150 (10), J. H. Wade Col- 

28. Plaque, probably from a shrine; champ- 
lev^ and cloisonne enamel and copper- 
gilt; Valley of the Meuse; about 1150 (9) 

29. "Hope," plaque; champleve enamel and 
copper-gilt; Valley of the Meuse; about 
1160-70 (9) 

30. "Aaron," plaque; champlev^ enamel and 
copper-gilt; Valley of the Meuse; 1160-70 

31. "St. James and St. John," plaque; champ- 
lev^ and copper-gilt; School of Godefroi 
de Claire; Valley of the Meuse; about 

32. Plaque, spandrel-shaped, probably from a 
shrine; champleve enamel and copper-gilt; 
Cologne 1170-80 (9) 

33. Colonnette, from a chasse; champlev^ en- 
amel and copper-gilt; Cologne or Valley of 
the Meuse; second half 12th century (13) 

34. Colonnette, from a chasse; champleve en- 
amel and copper-gilt; Cologne or Valley of 
the Meuse; second half 12th century (13) 

35. Plaque, from a shrine; champleve enamel 
and copper-gilt; Valley of the Rhine; 12th 
century (10), J. H. Wade Collection 

36. Casket, reliquary; champleve enamel and 
copper-gilt; Ltineburg; 12th century (38) 

37. "Christ Blessing," plaque; champlev^ en- 
amel and copper-gilt; Valley of the Rhine; 
13th century (37) 

38. Plaque; champlev^ enamel and copper- 
gilt; South Germany (now Switzerland); 
14th century (38) 

12TH-14TH century: FRANCE 

39. Winged ox and winged lion, two appliques, 
symbols of St. Luke and St. Mark; champ- 
lev^ enamel and copper-gilt; Limoges; 
late 12th century (24) 

40. St. Mark, probably from a shrine; champ- 
lev6 enamel and bronze-gilt; Limoges; 
late 12th century (23) 

41. Chasse without enamel; copper, once 
champlev^ enamelled and probably gilt; 
Limoges; late 12th or early 13th century 

42. Chasse; champleve enamel and copper and 
bronze-gilt; Limoges; early 13th century 

43. Chasse; champlev^ enamel and copper-gilt; 
Limoges; early 13th century (44) 

44. End from a chasse; champleve enamel and 
copper partly gilt; Limoges; mid-13th cen- 
tury (23) 

45. Terminal plaque from a cross; champlev^ 
enamel and copper-gilt; Limoges; mid-13th 
century (24) 

46. Plaque, from a chasse; champlev^ enamel 
and copper-gilt; Limoges; mid-13th cen- 
tury (24) 

47. Eucharistic dove; champlev^ enamel, cop- 
per and bronze-gilt; Limoges: 1250-75 (5) 

48. Gemellion; champlev^ enamel and copper 
once gilt; Limoges; second half I3th cen- 
tury (13) 

49. Gemellion; champlev^ enamel and copper 
once gilt; Limoges; second half 13th cen- 
tury (32) 

50. Candlestick, with the arms of France, and 
of Bernard, Comte de Turenne and his 
wife Marguerite; champlev6 enamel and 
copper-gilt; Limoges; late 13th century (38) 

51. Pendant; champlev^ and copper; France; 
late 13th century (23) 

52. Pastiche, including fragments from a 
chasse; champlev^ enamel, semi-precious 
stones, cameos, and copper-gilt; enamel, 
Limoges, mid-13th century. This object 
was assembled in the 19th century using 
fragments from various earlier periods (24) 

53. Plaque; cloisonne enamel, semi-precious 
stones, copper and silver-gilt; enamel, Paris, 
about 1300 (24) 

54. Chatelaine hook; champlev^ enamel and 
silver; France; 14th century (24) 


55. Two plaques, probably from a belt; cloi- 
sonne enamel and gold; Hispano-Moresque; 
13th-14th century (10), J. H. Wade Col- 


56. "St. Luke," appliqu^; champlev^ enamel 
and copper-gilt; Spain; first half 13th cen- 
tury (23) 

57. "Christ in Majesty," plaque, from a chSsse; 
champlev^ enamel and copper-gilt; Spain; 
14th century (24) 

58. Vessel; champlev^ enamel and copper part- 
ly gilt; provenance and date unknown; 
perhaps Hispano-Moresque, 13th century 

I4TH-16TH century: ITALY 

59. Cross, with Virgin and St. John; champleve 
enamel and copper-gilt; Florence; 14th cen- 
tury (13) 

60. Pax, with arms of the Benucci; verre fixe 
and painted enamel on glass, silver-gilt; 
Siena; 15th century (26) 

61. Chalice; painted enamel, silver-gilt; Italy; 
15th century (38) 

62. Pendant badge, arms of the Sforza; basse- 
taille enamel, silver-gilt; North Italy; 15th 
century (4) 

63. St. Luke, St. Paul, and St. Mark, triple 
plaque; painted enamel on silver; Italy; 
second half 15th century (24) 

64. Christ bearing the cross, plaque; encrusted 
enamel, copper-gilt; Italy; late 15th-early 
16th century (24) 

65. Cup and cover; painted enamel on copper; 
Venice; late 15th-early 16th century (9) 

66. Reliquary; painted enamel on copper, 
glass; Venice; 16th century (5) 

67. St. Paul, plaque, basse-taille enamel on 
gold; Florence; 16th century (24) 

68. Sweetmeat bowl; painted enamel on cop- 
per, silver-gilt; Italy; 16th century (26) 

69. Agnus Dei (?), penciant; encrusted enamel, 
gold, baroque pearl, stones; Italy; 16th cen- 
tury (19) 

70. Terminal figure, a soldier; encrusted en- 
amel, gold; Italy; 16th century (23) 

71. Pendant, with cameo; encrusted enamel, 
gold, cameo, stones; Italy; 16th century (4) 

72. Pendant, figure mounted on a lion; en- 
crusted enamel, gold, pearls, stones; Italy; 
16th century (4) 

73. Pendant, quatrefoil enclosing a cross; en- 
crusted enamel, gold, stones, pearl; Italy; 
16th century (5) 

74. The Assumption of the Virgin (?); encrust- 
ed enamel, gold, baroque pearl; Italy; late 
16th century (5) 

75. "Pelican in her Piety," pendant; encrusted 
enamel, gold, pearls, rubies; Italy or Ger- 
many; 16th century (5) 

76. Crucifix, pendant; encrusted enamel, gold; 
Italy; 18th century (6) 

i6th-i8th century: France 

77. Pax; painted enamel on copper, and bronze- 
gilt; France or North Italy; late 15th or 
early 16th century (4) 

78. St. IJarbara, pendant; basse-taille enamel, 
gold; France or Flanders; early 16th cen- 
tury (9) 


79. Diana on a stag, pendant; encrusted en- 
amel on gold, and stones; France (?); 16th 
century (38) 

80. Mirror frame; champlev^ enamel and cop- 
per-gilt; France (?); second half 16th cen- 
tury (24) 

81. Pair of salt cellars; painted enamel, grisaille 
and color, on copper; attributed to Couly 
Noylier (about 1468 - died after 1531); 
Limoges; first third 16th century (24) 

82. Roundel; St. Christopher carrying the 
Christ Child; painted enamel on copper; 
Nardon P^nicaud (1470-1542/3); Limoges; 
late 15th-early 16th century (37) 

83. Triptych, center Nativity, left wing Gabriel, 
right wing The Virgin; painted enamel on 
copper, bronze-gilt; Jean I. P^nicaud, (fl. 
1510-40); early 16th century (28) 

84. Folding book, Francis I on clasp; painted 
enamel, grisaille, on copper, bronze-gilt; 
Jean Penicaud II (1510 -after 1576); Li- 
moges; mid-16th century (24) 

85. Labors of the Seasons, three plaques; Hay- 
making, Ploughing, Cutting Wood; paint- 
ed enamel on copper; Jean Penicaud II 
(1510 — after 1576); Limoges; mid-16th cen- 
tury (24) 

86. Virgin and Child, medallion; painted en- 
amel, grisaille, on copper; Jean Penicaud 
III; Limoges; second half 16th century (24) 

87. Casket, scenes from story of David and 
Solomon; painted enamel on copper, 
bronze-gilt; atelier of the Pteicauds; Li- 
moges; 16th century (9) 

88. Mary Magdalene, plaque; painted enamel 
on copper; Leonard Limousin (about 1505- 
1577); Limoges; mid-16th century (32) 

89. Casket, scenes from story of Hercules; 
painted enamel on copper; Francois Li- 
mousin (fl. 1564-88); Limoges; 1579 (24) 

90. Pair of candlesticks; painted enamel, gri- 
saille, on copper; I. L. (Jean Limousin I ? 
about 1561-1610); Limoges; second half 
16th century (5) 

91. The Virgin with emblems of litanies, 
plaque, after a plate in book of hours, 
(1505) by Thielmann Kerver; painted en- 
amel on copper; Pierre Reymond, (about 
1513-84); Limoges; mid-16th century (32) 

92. Six plaques illustrating the Passion of 
Christ; Ecce Homo, Flagellation, Bearing 
the Cross, The Crucifixion, Descent from 
the Cross, The Resurrection (the last is 
not shown); painted enamel, grisaille, on 
copper; Pierre Reymond (about 1513-1584); 
Limoges; 1542 (13) 

93. Cup and cover; painted enamel, grisaille, 
on copper; Pierre Reymond (about 1513- 
1584); Limoges; 1552 (4) 

94. Ewer stand, with five scenes from Genesis 
after Lucas van Leyden; painted enamel, 
grisaille, on copper; Pierre Reymond (about 
1513-1584); Limoges; 1557 (10), Gift of 
Robert A. Weaver 

95. Plate, Joseph reveals himself to his broth- 
ers; painted enamel, metallic foil, copper; 
I. C. (Jean de Court or Jean Courtois); Li- 
moges; second half 16th century (10), Be- 
quest of William G. Mather 

96. Orpheus attacked by the Maenads, plaque; 
painted enamel on copper; Suzanne de 
Court (fl. 1600); Limoges; late 16th-early 
17th century (24) 

97. "Aeneas persuades Anchises, Creusa, and 
Ascanius to flee from Troy," plaque, after 
plate in 1502 edition of Aeneid illustrated 
by Johann Griininger of Strasbourg; paint- 
ed enamel on copper; Limoges; early 16th 
century (38) 

98. Venus (?), mirror back; painted enamel on 
copper; Limoges; mid-16th century (5) 

99. Two lovers, plaque; painted enamel on 
copper; Limoges; mid-16th century (5) 

100. Roundel; painted enamel on copper; North- 
ern France (?); 16th century (5) 

101. "De Occasion Suis," plaque; painted en- 
amel, grisaille, on copper; France; 16th 
century (13) 

102. St. Mathias, plaque; painted enamel, gri- 
saille, on copper; France; 16th century (13) 

103. Mirror back; en r^sille enamel, gold, rock 
crystal; France; second half 16th century 
(10), J. H. Wade Collection 

104. ]56nitier; painted enamel on copper, silver- 
gilt; Limoges; early 17th century (37) 

105. Salt cellar, with Apollo, Jupiter, Juno, 
Diana, Mercury, Mars, Minerva; painted 
enamel on copper; Limoges; 17th century 

106. Brush back with motto "Mare Lascitur 
Fortitudo"; painted enamel on copper; 
France; 17th century (24) 

107. St. Nicholas, plaque; painted enamel on 
copper; Jacques II Laudin (about 1663- 
1729); Limoges; late 17th-early 18th cen- 
tury (24) 

108. Reticule, with plaque showing beheaded 
female saint; painted enamel on copper, 
silk; France; early 18th century (24) 

109. Watchcase; encrusted and painted enamel, 
gold; France; mid-18th century (36) 

110. Watch and chatelaine; painted enamel, 
gold; Paris; mid-18th century (36) 

111. Snuff box, with six genre and still lite 
scenes; painted enamel, miniature paint- 
ing, gold; Eloy Brichard, (fl. mid-18th cen- 
tury); Paris; 1759 (36) 

112. Plaque, from a box, after Boucher, "La 
le^on agrfeable"; miniature painting on en- 
amel, gold; France; late 18th century (24) 

113. Pair of cloak pins, probably illustrating 
first balloon flight across the English Chan- 
nel; miniature painting on enamel over 
transfer print, copper, brass; France, about 
1784 (24) 

i6th-i8th century: Germany 

114. Finger ring, skull with concealed compart- 
ment; encrusted enamel, gold; South Ger- 
many; 16th century (4) 

115. Pendant, with amethyst; encrusted enamel, 
gold, stone; South Germany; late 16th cen- 
tury (19) 

116. "Faith," plaque; painted enamel on gold; 
Germany; early 17th century (4) 

117. Cup and saucer; painted enamel, silver; 
Augsburg; early 18th century (4) 

118. "Madonna in a Bower," pendant; encrusted 
and painted enamel, silver, paste; Ger- 
many; 17th century (4) 

119. Buckle; encrusted and painted enamel, 
paste, silver; Germany; 17th century (4) 

120. Knife and fork; encrusted and painted en- 
amel, gold, silver-gilt; South Germany; 
mid-17th century (4) 

121. Tankard; painted enamel, silver-gilt; Bar- 
tholemaeus Pfister (d. 1696); Nuremberg; 
second half 17th century (5) 

122. The Four Seasons, four roimdels; painted 
enamel on copper; Germany; about 1680 

123. Pair of beakers; painted enamel on cop- 
per, silver-gilt; workshop of Pierre Fro- 
m^ry (1659-1738); Berlin; early 18th cen- 
tury (35) 

124. Knife and fork; painted enamel on gold, 
silver; Dresden; early 18th century (4) 

125. Two decorative plaques; encrusted and 
painted enamel, silver; South Germany; 
18th century (4) 

126. Plaque, from a box; painted enamel on 
copper, gold; Christian Friedrich Heroldt 
(1700-1779) ; From^ry workshop, Berlin; 
mid-18th century (35) 

127. Box; painted enamel; Germany, perhaps 
Berlin; mid-18th century (38) 

128. Emperor Joseph II of Austria; miniature 
portrait on enamel, copper; signed "Pfarr"; 
Germany or Austria; second half 18th cen- 
tury (4) 

129. Pair of wall sconces; painted enamel on 
copper, bronze-gilt; Vienna, Austria; 1780- 
1790 (27) 

17TH-18TH century: ENGLAND, 

130. Candlestick; champlevd enamel, brass; Sur- 
rey (?), England; second half I7th century 

131. Needle-sheath; champlevd enamel, brass; 
England (?), Bavaria (?); second half 17th 
century (24) 

132. Alderman Stephen Theodore Janssen, 
wearing collar and robes of the Lord Mayor 
of London; miniature portrait over trans- 
fer print on enamel, copper; pinchbeck 
frame; York House, Battersea, London, 
England; 1754 (35) 

133. Box, in shape of sparrow; painted on en- 
amel, copper, brass; London (?), England; 
1750-1760 (12) 

134. Watchcase; en plein enamel, gold; London, 
England; mid-18th century (24) 

135. Round plaque, cloak pin (?); painted en- 
amel over transfer print, copper, brass; 
England; mid-I8th century (12) 


136. Vinaigrette and scent bottle; painted en- 
amel, miniature painting, copper, brass; 
Bickley workshop (?); South Staffordshire, 
England; 1760-1776 (12) 

137. Salt cellar; painted enamel on copper; 
South Staffordshire, England; 1760-1780 

138. Pair of tea caddies and sugar canister; 
painted enamel on copper, raised gilding; 
South Staffordshire, England; about 1775 

139. Oval box, portrait in fancy dress; miniature 
portrait, gold, horn; initial "S"; England; 
1770-1779 (12) 

140. Scent bottle; encrusted and painted enamel 
on glass; Bristol, England; 1770-1780 (35) 

141. "Scarlet Strawberries!," oval box, after The 
Cries of London; miniature painting, cop- 
per; South Staffordshire (?), England; last 
third 18th century (12) 

142. Spy-glass; en plein enamel, miniature 
painting, gold; Augustus Toussaint (fl. 
1775-1788); England and France, (paint- 
ing); 1770-1790 (36) 

143. Spy-glass; painted enamel, copper-gilt; 
Bilston, England; about 1780 (22) 

144. "A Trifle from New York," two patch box 
covers; painted enamel on copper; England 
(?); late 18th century (44) 

145. "Be Happy," box, two hearts on lid in- 
scribed "A" and "P"; painted enamel, 
copper, brass; England; late ISth-early 19th 
century (12) 

146. Two knives; painted enamel, gold, steel; 
signed "Gtien van Banchem"; The Nether- 
lands; early 17th century (4) 

147. Knife and fork; encrusted and painted en- 
amel, gold; The Netherlands; 17th century 

148. Knife and fork; encrusted and painted en- 
amel on copper, steel, stone; The Nether- 
lands; second half 17th century (35) 

149. Charles XII of Sweden, brooch; miniature 
portrait on enamel, gold; Sweden; late 
18th century (3) 

150. Brooch, two lovers in rustic setting; minia- 
ture painting on enamel, silver-gilt; Gene- 
va, Switzerland; late 18th-early 19th cen- 
tury (3) 


151. Assumption of the Virgin, plaque; champ- 
lev^ enamel and copper; Russia; 17th cen- 
tury (38) 

152. Crucifix and Christ blessing, icon; painted 
enamel on silver; Usolsk; 17th century (38) 

153. Bowl; painted enamel, silver-gilt; Usolsk; 
about 1690 (38) 

154. Bowl; painted enamel on copper, silver- 
gilt; Moscow; late 17th century (17) 

155. Box; champlev^ enamel on silver; Moscow; 
late 17th century (17) 

156. Pair of portraits, Peter the Great and his 
Czarina Catherine; miniature portraits on 
gold; Russia; early 18th century (4) 


157. Cup, with gold coin of 175b in base; plique- 
i-jour enamel, gold; Russia; 19th century 
(?) (38) 

158. Badge and collar of the order of St. Andrew; 
encrusted and painted enamel on gold; 
J. W. Keibel; St. Petersburg; about 1840 

159. Egg-shaped purse; cloisonne enamel and 
silver-gilt; Russia; 19th century (12) 

160. Bottle and saucer; painted enamel, brass- 
gilt; Russia; 19th century (38) 

161. Sherbet cup, plate, and spoon, with arms 
of St. Petersburg, Moscow, and Kazan on 
knop, from a set; en plein and plique-4- 
jour enamel, silver-gilt; Fedor Riickert; 
Moscow; late 19th century (36) 

162. Tankard; encrusted, champlev^, cloisonne, 
painted, and plique-^-jour enamel, silver- 
gilt; Ovtchinnikov; Moscow; 1890 (36) 

163. Cup and saucer; filigree plique-a-jour en- 
amel, silver-gilt; Ovtchinnikov; Moscow; 
about 1900 (36) 

164. View of Hampton Court Palace; miniature 
painting, gold, nephrite, ivory; the firm of 
Peter Carl Faberge; St. Petersburg; about 
1900 (36) 

165. Oval box; en plein enamel on silver, silver- 
gilt; the firm of Peter Carl Faberg^; St. 
Petersburg; about 1900 (36) 

166. Imperial Easter egg; painted enamel, gold, 
stones; Henrik Wigstrom (1862 — about 
1930) of the firm of Peter Carl Faberge; 
St. Petersburg; 1907 (38) 

167. Plaque; painted enamel, gold, pearls; Per- 
sia; 19th century (?) (16) 

168. Incense burner; champlev^ enamel on 
bronze; Near East; 19th century (38) 

16TH-20TH century: the orient 

169. Krishna, The Divine Herdsman, pendant; 
champlev^ enamel, gold; Rajputana, India; 
late 16th century (10), J. H. Wade Fund 

170. Finger ring, in form of six fish; encrusted 
enamel, gold; Jaipur, India; 18th century 
(10), Gift of Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Wade 

171. Finger ring, in form of six fish; encrusted 
enamel on gold; Jaipur, India; I9th cen- 
tury (?) (12) 

172. Armlet; encrusted enamel, silver-gilt, 
pearls, stones; Jaipur, India; late 18th-early 
19th century (10) , Gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
J. H. Wade 

173. Octagonal box; encrusted enamel, gold, 
stones; Jaipur, India; late 18th-early 19th 
century (10), Gift of Mr. and Mrs. J. H. 

174. "Hsj'angiu/' incense burner; cloisonne and 
charaplev^ enamels, copper and bronze; 
probably Peking, China; cast mark, "Ta 
Ming Hsiian-Te nien chih" (made in the 
reign of Hsiian-Te [1425-1435] of the Great 
Ming dynasty) (8) 

175. Vase; cloisonn^ enamel, and copper-gilt; 
China; Hsiian-Te mark, 15th century (?) 

176. Vase; cloisonne enamel and bronze; China; 
Ching T'ai mark (1450-1456) (33) 

177. Hu, vessel; cloisonne enamel, bronze; 
China; probably late Ming; 17th centurv 


178. Chi-Lin, unicorn; cloisonne on copper- 
gilt; China; K'ang Hsi (1662-1722) (43) 

179. Lower part of a small box; painted enamel 
on copper; China; probably Canton; Ch'ien 
Lung (1736-1795) (24) 

180. Bowl; painted enamel on copper; Peking, 
China; Ch'ieng Lung mark (1736-1795) (7) 

181. Sweetmeat box and cover; painted enamel 
on copper; Peking, China; Ch'ien Lung 
mark (1736-1795) (7) 

182. Horse, with detachable trappings; cloi- 
sonne enamel, brass-gilt; China; 18th cen- 
tury (24) 

183. Bowl; painted enamel on copper-gilt; Pe- 
king, China; 18th century (18) 

184. Double flask, "Sun and Moon"; cloisonne 
enamel and copper; China; late 18th cen- 
tury (7) 

185. Pair of roosters; cloisonne and bronze-gilt; 
China; probably Ch'ia Ching (1796-1821) 

186. Dish, one of a set; painted enamel on cop- 
per; Canton, China; 18th century (23) 

187. Plate; painted enamel on copper; Canton 
or Swatow, China; 18th century (23) 

188. Basin; painted enamel on copper; Canton, 
China; 19th century (6) 

189. Ju-I, presentation scepter with symbols for 
happiness, luck, longevity, etc.; cloisonne 
enamel, bronze-gilt; China; 19th century 

190.. Vase, in imitation of porcelain; cloisonne 
enamel, bronze; China; Ch'ing (1644-1912) 

191. Votive figure with lotus stand; cloisonne 
(?) enamel on bronze-gilt; Japan; late 18th 
or early 19th century (8) 

192. Lotus bowl; cloisonne enamel and bronze; 
Japan; probably 19th century, Tokugawa 

193. Salver; cloisonne enamel and bronze; Ja- 
pan; 19th century, probably Tokugawa (6) 

194. Stud; cloisonne enamel, gold; Japan; 19th 
century (12) 

19TH-20TH century; western Europe 

195. Box; en plein enamel on gold; mark "AJ"; 
York, England; 1805-1806 (12) 

196. The Honorable Carolyn Gailer, after Rey- 
nolds; miniatine portrait, copper; Henry 
Bone, (1755-1834); England; early 19th cen- 
tury (4) 

197. The Lesser George, badge, of The Most 
Noble Order of The Garter; en plein en- 
amel, gold; England; 1800-1830 (36) 

198. Zarf, holder for coffee cup; encrusted en- 
amel, gold, stones; probably Geneva, Switz- 
erland; about 1830 (16) 

199. Zarf, holder for coffee cup; miniature 
painting, gold; Switzerland; early 19th cen- 
tury (38) 

200. Pendant watchcase; painted enamel, gold, 
pearls, chips; France or Switzerland; early 
19th century (24) 

201. Napoleon; painted enamel on copper; 
France; mid-19th century (29) 

202. Wellington; painted enamel on copper; 
France; mid-19th century (29) 

203. Bellona, plaque, contemporary duplicate 
of one from a series made for the cradle of 
the Prince Imperial; painted enamel, gri- 
saille, on copper; A. Serre and Ferdinand 
Barbedienne (1810-1892) ; Sfevres, France 
about 1856 (38) 

204. Brooch, in form of a snake; encrusted en 
amel on gold, agate; France; mid-19th cen 
tury (12) 

205. Bangle, bracelet; encrusted enamel on gold 
France; mid-19th century (12) 

206. Scent bottle, scene after Fragonard; minia- 
ture painting, copper, gold; France or 
England; 1850-1860 (6) 

207. Parure: necklace, bracelet, brooch, pair of 
earrings; encrusted enamel, gold, pearls, 
paste; France; 1850-1870 (6) 

208. Watchcase, in form of a butterfly; painted 
enamel, gold; Paris; 1850-1870 (24) 

209. Brooch, after Boucher, "La le^on agr^able"; 
miniature painting, gold, pearls; France; 
about 1870 (12) 

210. Brooch, in form of five blackamoors' heads; 
encrusted enamel on silver; Vienna, Aus- 
tria; 1850-1860 (25) 

211. Ewer and stand; painted enamel, silver- 
gilt; Austria; after 1872 (24) 

212. Pendant, eagle; encrusted enamel, gold, 
pearls, stones; Italy; 19th century (16) 

213. Pendant, Virgin and Child; encrusted en- 
amel, gold; Spain; 19th century (6) 

214. Pendant, rose bud; encrusted enamel, gold, 
rock crystal; France; about 1900 (12) 

215. "Love and Rainbow," plaque; painted en- 
amel; Alexander Fisher; England; early 
20th centui7 (13) 

216. Angel, plaque; painted enamel on copper; 
Mrs. Ernestine Mills; England; early 20th 
century (13) 

217. Centaur, plaque; cloisonne enamel on cop- 
per, silver; Florence Nesmith; England; 
early 20th century (11) 

218. "The Raleigh Ship," casket; painted en- 
amel on copper, silver; Omar Ramsden; 
London, England; early 20th century (11) 

219. Bowl; plique-a-jour enamel, gold; Fernand 
Thesmar, (1843-1912); France; 1903 (24) 

220. Cup; plique-a-jour enamel, gold; Fernand 
Thesmar, (1843-1912); France; 1903 (38) 

221. Bowl; painted enamel on copper; Maria 
Likarz; Vienna, Austria; 1917 (22) 

222. Casket, with scenes from the story of Un- 
dine; painted enamel on copper, silver; 
Ruth Raemisch; Germany; first third 20th 
century (24) 


igTH-aoTH century: united states 

223. General Lafayette at the anniversary of the 
Battle of Yorktown, October 19th, 1824, 
after Scheffer; miniature portrait, copper; 
William Birch, (1755-1834); Philadelphia, 
Pennsylvania; about 1824 (44) 

224. Plaque, an equestrian figure; champleve 
enamel, copper-gilt; Edward F. Caldwell; 
New York; first quarter 20th century (13) 

225. Casket, humidor, in the manner of Limoges 
13th century; champlev6 enamel, copper- 
gilt, bronze-gilt; engraved, "E. F. Caldwell 
& Co. New York"; New York; about 1925 

226. Triptych, Nativity; cloisonne enamel on 
silver; Arthur Nevill Kirk; United States; 
first third 20th century (11) 

227. "Golden Fishes," tray; painted enamel on 
copper; Virginia Dudley, (1913- ); Ris- 
ing Fawn, Georgia; mid-20th century (15) 

228. "Primeval Patterns," trays, two of set of 
three; painted enamel on copper; Virginia 
Dudley, (1913- ); Rising Fawn, Georgia; 
mid-20th century (15) 

229. "Childhood Impressions," plaque; painted 
enamel on copper; Maureen Wicke; Grosse 
Point Farms, Michigan; mid-20th century 

230. "Fish Number Five," appliques on drift- 
wood; painted enamel on copper, wood; 
Maureen Wicke; Grosse Point Farms, 
Michigan; mid-20th century (39) 

231. "Geometry," plaque; painted enamel on 
copper, wire; Maureen Wicke; Grosse Point 
Farms, Michigan; mid-20th century (39) 

232. "Argument in a Limoges Market Place," 
plaque; painted enamel on silver and cop- 
per; Kenneth Francis Bates, (1904- ); 
Cleveland, Ohio; 1944 (10) The Dudley P. 
Allen Collection 

233. "My Trip to Pittsburgh," plaque; painted 
enamel on silver; Kenneth Francis Bates, 
(1904- ); Cleveland, Ohio; 1945 (10) The 
Dudley P. Allen Collection 

234. "Message," plate; painted enamel on cop- 
per, gold, silver; Kenneth Francis Bates, 
(1904- ); Cleveland, Ohio; 1945 (2) 

235. Cross, scenes from the Life of Christ; 
painted enamel on silver; Charles Bartley 
Jeffery, (1910- ); Cleveland, Ohio; 1945 
(10) The Dudley P. Allen Collection 

236. "Heads of Christ and Mary," diptych; cloi- 
sonne enamel on silver and gold foil, rose- 
wood; Charles Bartley Jeffery, (1910- ); 
Cleveland, Ohio; 1953 (21) 

237. Bowl number one; painted enamel on 
copper, silver foil; Charles Bartley Jeffery, 
(1910- ); Cleveland, Ohio; 1953 (21) 

238. Bowl number two; painted enamel on 
copper, gold foil, silver foil; Charles Bart- 
ley Jeffery, (1910- ); Cleveland, Ohio; 
1953 (21) 

239. "Nereid," plaque; painted enamel on cop- 
per; Doris Hall, (1907- ); Cleveland, 
Ohio; 1948 (10) The Rorimer-Brooks An- 
niversary Award, 1948 

240. "Cycle of Life," plaque; painted enamel 
on copper; H. Edward Winter, (1908- ); 
Cleveland, Ohio; 1948 (10) Gift of Mrs. 
B. P. Bole 

241. Bowl; painted enamel on copper; H. Ed- 
ward Winter, (1908- ); Cleveland, Ohio; 
1953 (10) Gift of The Cleveland Art Asso- 

242. Wall Cross, scenes from the Life of Christ; 
painted enamel on copper, pewter; Karl 
Drerup, (1904- ); Campton, New Hamp- 
shire; 1953 (14) 

243. "St. Michael," bowl; painted enamel on 
copper, pewter; Karl Drerup, (1904- ); 
Campton, New Hampshire; 1953 (14) 

244. "Profile," plaque; painted enamel on cop- 
per, sgraffito; Jackson WooUey; San Diego, 
California; 1953 (41) 

245. "Queen," plaque; painted enamel on cop- 
per, sgraffito; Ellamarie Woolley; San 
Diego, California; 1954 (41) 

246. "Carnival," plaque; painted enamel on 
copper; Arthur Ames; Claremont, Cali- 
fornia; 1954 (1) 

247. "Night Fragment," plaque; painted en- 
amel; Jean Ames, (1905- ); Claremont, 
California; 1954 (1) 

248. "Fisherman," plaque; painted enamel on 
copper, sgraffito; Barney M. Reid; San 
Diego, California; 1954 (30) 

249. Plaque; painted enamel on copper, rose- 
wood; Kathrine Winckler; East Lansing, 
Michigan; 1954 (40) 

250. Plaque; painted enamel on copper, ama- 
ranth; Kathrine Winckler; East Lansing, 
Michigan; 1954 (40) 


Selected References from The Cooper Union Libraries 


Bates, Kenneth F. Enameling: principles and 
practice. Cleveland, World Pub. Co., 1951. 

Burlington Fine Arts Club. Catalogue of a col- 
lection of European enamels from the earliest 
date to the end of the XVII. century. Lon- 
don, 1897. 

Cunynghame, Sir Henry H. European enamels. 
New York, Putnam, 1906. 

Davenport, Cyril. Miniatures, ancient and mod- 
ern. London, Methuen, 1907. "Enamels," pp. 

Gamier, fidouard. Histoire de la verrerie et de 
r^maillerie. Tours, Mame, 1886. 

Marquet de Vasselot, J. J. Bibliographie de 
I'orfevrerie et de I'^maillerie fran^aise. Paris, 
Picard, 1925. 

Molinier, Emile. Dictionnaire des ^mailleurs 
depuis le moyen age jusqii'i la fin du XVIIIe 
sifecle. Paris, Rouam, 1885. 


Coomaraswamy, Ananda K. An Indian enamel. 

Boston Museum Bulletin, v. 38, pp. 23-28, 

April, 1940. 
Hildburgh, Walter L. Chinese painted enamels 

with European subjects. Burlington Maga- 
zine, V. 79, pp. 78-89, Sept. 1941. 
Jacob, Sir Samuel S., and Hendley, T. H. Jey- 

pore enamels. London, Griggs, 1886. 
Rienaecker, Victor G. R. Chinese cloisonne. 

Apollo, V. 48, pp. 42-43 and 53-55, Aug. and 

Sept. 1948. 


Belin de Ballu, Eugfene. Collections et monu- 
ments byzantins en U.R.S.S. Mouseion, v. 
49-50, pp. 141-198, 1940. 

Boinet, Amedee. Exhibition of Limousin en- 
amels at the museum of Limoges. Connois- 
seur, V. 122, pp. 75-82, Dec. 1948. 

Botkin, M. P. Sobranie M. P. Botkina. St. 
Petersburg, 1911. 

Breck, Joseph. Notes on some Mosan enamels. 
Metropolitan Museum Studies, v. 1, pp. 81-94, 

Bunt, Cyril G. E. An important group of By- 
zantine enamels. Connoisseur, v. 132, pp. 
104-105, Nov. 1953. 

Gauthier, Marie Madeleine. £maux champlevfe 
des Xll-XIIIe siMes. Paris, de Prat, 1950. 

Goetz, Oswald. Medieval enamels and metal- 
work in the Buckingham collection. Chicago 
Art Institute Bulletin, v. 38, pp. 105-112, Dec. 

Lansing, Ambrose. Masterpieces of enameling. 
Metropolitan Museum Bulletin, v. 35, pp. 
99-103, May, 1940. 

Milliken, William M. European enamels pre- 
sented by Robert A. Weaver. Cleveland Mu- 
seum Bulletin, v. 27, pp. 149-154, Dec. 1940. 

Ostoia, Vera K. Late medieval plique-^-jour 
enamel: a Swiss 16th century plaque. Met- 

ropolitan Museum Bulletin, n.s. v. 4, pp. 
78-80, Nov. 1945. 

Rorimer, James J. A I2th century Byzantine 
enamel. Metropolitan Museum Bulletin, v. 
33, pp. 244-246, Nov. 1938. 

Schlunk, Helmut. Crosses of Oviedo: the prob- 
lem of the enamels. Art Bulletin, v. 32, pp. 
105-110, June, 1950. 


Phillips, John G. Two Limoges candlesticks. 
Metropolitan Museum Bulletin, v. 34, pp. 
138-140, June, 1939. 

Raggio, Olga. Decorative portraits by Leonard 
Limousin. Metropolitan Museum Bulletin, 
n.s. V. 10, pp. 96-105, Nov. 1951. 

Reed, Herbert. A Penicaud masterpiece: Li- 
moges enamel triptych. Burlington Magazine, 
V. 57, pp. 278-284, Dec. 1930. 

Ross, Marvin C. Notes on enamels by Pierre 
Reymond. Walters Art Gallery Journal, v. 2, 
pp. 77-103, 1931. 

Swarzenski, Georg. A masterpiece of Limoges: 
relief in gilded copper with champleve en- 
amels representing the Baptism of Christ. 
Boston Museum Bulletin, v. 49, pp. 17-25, 
Feb. 1951. 

17TH AND i8tH centuries 

Beard, Charles R. Surrey enamels of the 17th 
century. Connoisseur, v. 88, pp. 219-229, and 
V. 90, pp. 25-26, Oct. 1931 and July 1932. 

Clouzot, Henri. Dictionnaire des miniaturistes 
sur ^mail. Paris Moranc^, 1924. 

Hill, Henry and Sidney. Antique gold boxes. 
New York, Abelard, 1953. 

Honey, William B. New light on Battersea en- 
amels. Connoisseur, v. 89, pp. 82-89 and 164- 
170, Feb.-March 1932. 

Hughes, Bernard. Battersea and Bilston en- 
amels. Antiques, v. 16, pp. 29-32, July 1929. 

Paris. Mus<5e national du Louvre. Les ^maux 
de Petitot au Mus^e imperial du Louvre. 
Paris, Blaisot, 1862-64. 2 v. 

Victoria and Albert Museum, South Kensing- 
ton. Catalogue of English porcelain, earth- 
enware, enamels and glass collected by Charles 
Schreiber and the Lady Charlotte Elizabeth 
Schreiber. London, 1924. 3 v. "Enamels and 
Glass" by Bernard Rackham, vol. 3. 

igTH AND 20TH centuries 

Bainbridge, Henry C. Peter Carl FabergiJ. New 
York, Batsford, 1949. 

Brockway, John L. William Birch, his Ameri- 
can enamel portraits. Antiques, v. 24, pp. 
94-96, Sept. 1933. 

Moran, J. Spenser. Rising Faun enamels. Craft 
Horizons, v. 14, pp. 26-31, Feb. 1954. 

Snowman, A. Kenneth. The art of Carl Faberg^. 
London, Faber, 1953. 

Watson, E. W. and Guptill, A. L. Edward 
Winter opens up new decorative vistas. Amer- 
ican Artist, V. 11, pp. 38-41, Sept. 1947. 

Whitney N. Morgan 



To the Exhibition 

Jean AND Arthur Ames (1) 

Kenneth Francis Bates (2) 

Mr. and Mrs. Michel Benisovich (3) 

The Blumka Gallery (4) 

Leopold Blumka (5) 

The Brooklyn Museum (6) 

C. T. Loo, Inc., Frank Caro, 

Successor (7) 

Ralph M. Chait (8) 

The Art Institute of Chicago (9) 

The Cleveland Museum of Art 


The Museum of The Cranbrook 
Academy OF Art (11) 

The Cooper Union Museum (12) 

The Detroit Institute OF Arts (13) 

Karl Drerup (14) 

Miss Virginia Dudley (15) 

Raphael Esmerian (16) 

Leon Grinberg (17) 

Mr. and Mrs. Nathan V. Hammer 

John Davis Hatch, Jr. (19) 

Hans Huth (20) 

Charles Bartley Jeffery (21) 

Klejman Gallery (22) 

Mathias Komor (23) 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art 


Mrs. Charles F. Morgan (25) 

The Pierpont Morgan Library 


A. R. Nesle (27) 

The Philadelphia Museum of Art 

The Art Museum, Princeton 
University (29) 

Barney M. Reid (30) 

Abris Silberman (31) 

Raphael Stora (32) 

Tonying and Company (33) 

The University Museum, Univer- 
sity OF Pennsylvania (34) 

Irwin Untermyer (35) 

A La Vieille Russie (36) 

The Wadsworth Atheneum (37) 

The Walters Art Gallery (38) 

Miss Maureen Wicke through The 
Little Gallery, Birmingham, 
Michigan (39) 

Miss Kathrine Winckler (40) 

Ellamarie and Jackson Woolley 


The Worcester Art Museum (42) 

Edgar Worch (43) 

Yale University Art Gallery (44) 



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